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乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信,如果清朝没有取代明朝【澳门新葡8455最新网站】

咨尔国王,整个中国都将成为俄罗斯的领地》,常识积累|历史入门知识汇总

原标题:双语||乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信(中英文)

原标题:战斗民族网友:如果清朝没有取代明朝,整个中国都会成为俄罗斯帝国的领地

原标题:常识积累|历史入门知识汇总

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明亡清兴,很多人都认为是个悲剧,是文明的大倒退。然而一位俄罗斯网友却给了不同的看法。在俄国最大的社交网站VKontakte中,一个匿名网友发了一个帖子。帖子的标题是,《如果满洲人没有征服中国,整个中国都将成为俄罗斯的领地》。

公务员考试常识需要考生平时多加积累。

奉天承运,皇帝敕谕,英吉利国王知悉:

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今天给大家带来历史入门知识汇总,考生在背记时记得注意细节,以免混淆。

咨尔国王,远在重洋,倾心向化,特遣使恭赍表章,航海来廷,叩祝万寿,并备进方物,用将忱悃(还带了不少礼物,忠心可嘉)。**朕披阅表文,词意肫恳,具见国王恭顺之诚,深为嘉许。所有赍到表贡之正副使臣,念其奉使远涉,推恩加礼。已令大臣带领瞻觐(让大臣带领他们瞻仰天朝文明,赐予筵宴,叠加赏赉,用示怀柔。其已回珠山之管船官役人等六百余名,虽未来京,朕亦优加赏赐,俾得普沾恩惠,一视同仁(已经回到宁波珠山的管船役使等600多人虽然没有来京,我也一视同仁给与优厚赏赐,让大家都沾沾光)。**

这名网友认为,相比于明朝,满洲人建立的清朝更加热衷于拓边,对于蒙古和满洲地区也更加在乎。自朱棣以后,明朝的北方边境已经开始龟缩到长城以南。明朝曾经在外东北地区建立过统治,设立了奴儿干都司。

中国史知识点

至尔国王表内恳请派一尔国之人住居天朝,照管尔国买卖一节,此则与天朝体制不合,断不可行。向来西洋各国有愿来天朝当差之人,原准其来京,但既来之后,即遵用天朝服色,安置堂内,永远不准复回本国,此系天朝定制,想尔国王亦所知悉。今尔国王欲求派一尔国之人居住京城,既不能若来京当差之西洋人,在京居住不归本国,又不可听其往来,常通信息,实为无益之事。且天朝所管地方至为广远,凡外藩使臣到京,驿馆供给,行止出入,俱有一定体制,从无听其自便之例。今尔国若留人在京,言语不通,服饰殊制,无地可以安置。若必似来京当差之西洋人,令其一律改易服饰,天朝亦不肯强人以所难。设天朝欲差人常驻尔国,亦岂尔国所能遵行(假设我天朝也派人常住你国,恐怕你国也不同意吧?)?况西洋诸国甚多,非止尔一国,若俱似尔国王恳请派人留京,岂能一一听许?是此事断难准行。岂能因尔国王一人之请,以至更张天朝百余年法度(不能因为国王你一人之请,将天朝一百多年的规矩给废了)。

然而在15世纪中期,明朝便出人意料地放弃了这块土地,将防线退到了今天的辽宁,整个东北都成了女真人的领地。为了制止麻烦的女真人的入侵,明朝甚至把这项工作交给了朝鲜人。

1.公元前2070年,禹建立我国历史上第一个王朝是夏;我国的早期国家政治制度起源于夏朝。

若云尔国王为照料买卖起见,则尔国人在澳门贸易非止一日,原无不加以恩视(若派人来京是为了照顾买卖起见,那你国人在澳门贸易也不是一天两天了,天朝原本对商人就没有另眼相看)。即如从前博尔都噶尔亚、意达哩亚等国屡次遣使来朝,亦曾以照料贸易为请。天朝鉴其悃忱,优加体恤(像以前葡萄牙、意大利几国好几次派人来,也曾经以照顾贸易的名义请我关照。天朝看他们挺真诚的,也不容易,就多加体恤)。凡遇该国等贸易之事,无不照料周备。前次广东商人吴昭平有拖欠洋船价值银两者,俱饬令该管总督由官库内先行动支帑项代为清还,并将拖欠商人重治其罪。想此事尔国亦闻知矣,外国又何必派人留京,为此越例断不可行之请?况留人在京,距澳门贸易处所几及万里,伊亦何能照料耶(何况你们派人驻京,京城距澳门差不多一万里,他怎么能照顾到?)?**若云仰慕天朝,欲其观习教化,则天朝自有天朝礼法,与尔国各不相同。尔国所留之人即能习学,尔国自有风俗制度,亦断不能效法中国,即学会亦属无用**。

明朝时,俄罗斯正向东方进发,在叶儿马克等殖民者的带领,俄罗斯人穿越了整个西伯利亚,到达了远东,也就是外东北地区。当时是1643年,俄罗斯先后建立了雅茨库克、尼布楚和雅克萨城,开始确立沙皇对东北和蒙古的统治。

2.原始社会后期禅让制被王位世袭制所取代。

天朝扶有四海,惟励精图治,办理政务,奇珍异宝,并不贵重(天朝管辖的地方那么大,我想的是如何励精图治,至于奇珍异宝啥的我并不看得很重)。尔国王此次赍进各物,念其诚心远献,特谕该管衙门收纳(你啊这次进贡了不少礼物,念你特别诚恳大老远献来了,我才特别下旨让有关部门收了)。**其实天朝德威远被,万国来王,种种贵重之物,梯航毕集,无所下有,尔之正使等所亲见(其实天朝德泽四方,威加海内,万国来朝,通过水旱两路给我进贡,咱啥贵重玩意儿都不缺,这些你的使者都是亲眼见过的)。然从不贵奇巧,并无更需尔国制办物件。是尔国王所请派人留京一事,于天朝体制既属不合,而于尔国亦殊觉无益。特此详晰开示,遣令该使等安程回国(我把话都挑明了,现令让你国使者马上安排回国行程)**尔国王惟当善体朕意,益励款诚,永矢恭顺,以保义尔有邦,共享太平之福(国王你应该很好地领会我的意思,对天朝要更加诚心归附,发誓永远对天朝恭顺,天朝的恩泽就能施予你们国家,共建和谐社会)。除正副使臣以下各官及通事兵役人等正贯加赏各物件另单赏给外,兹因尔国使臣归国,特颁敕谕,并赐赍尔国王文绮珍物,具如常仪,加赐彩缎罗绮,文玩器具诸珍(除了正副使臣以下一干人等都按等级赏给各种物件,因为你国使者马上就要回国,我又特别下令,除了按常规赏给你的好玩意儿以外,加赐你绫罗绸缎、文玩器具等好玩意儿若干),另有清单。王其祗受,悉朕眷怀(皇恩浩荡,那都是我对你们的关怀)

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3.为了进行有效的统治,周朝在政治上实行分封制。西周宗法制的最大特点是嫡长子继承制。

特此敕谕。**——**《清实录》

如果不出意外,俄罗斯将占领长城以北所有地区,因为俄国人对付游牧民族最有一套,只需要利用堡垒、火枪和哥萨克,就能轻易征服一个游牧民族。即使是建立于辽东的满洲帝国,也不是俄罗斯人对手。

分封制与宗法制的关系是互为表里,相辅相成。

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在1653年,俄罗斯在外东北曾与清军交战,结果只用800人就击败了20000满洲骑兵。相信在不久的将来,还未完全统一中国的清朝,将被俄罗斯所征服。

4.柳宗元的《封建论》说“夏、商、周、汉封建而延,秦郡邑而促”。文中的“封建”的含义是分封制。

Qianlong’s Letter to George III, 1793

然而随着,满清帝国在中国全面确立统治,俄罗斯在东北亚的扩张就开始力不从心。原来,满清帝国获得了中国人的资源,可以有效与在远东的俄罗斯人对抗。当时,俄罗斯人毕竟太少,受到本土的支援不够,根本耗不过有全体中国人支持的满清军队。

5.保证了贵族在政治上的垄断和特权地位,也有利统治集团内部的稳定和团结的是宗法制。

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6.秦朝是中国历史上第一个统一的封建王朝。秦始皇首创的皇帝制度,是中国封建专制制度的重特征。在中央设置丞相、御史大夫和太尉三个最高官职。

You, O King, live beyond the confines of
many seas. Nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of
the benefits of our civilisation, you have dispatched a mission
respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and
paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday. To show
your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country’s
produce.

比如在雅克萨之战中,清朝竟然在莽荒寒冷的当地投入2万人,而雅克萨的守军只有800人。所以俄罗斯永远失去了征服中国的机会。

7.唐朝时,掌握草拟、审议和行政的职能分别是中书省、门下省和尚书省。

I have perused your memorial: the earnest
terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part,
which is highly praiseworthy. In consideration of the fact that your
Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and
tribute, I have shown them high favour and have allowed them to be
introduced into my presence. To manifest my indulgence, I have
entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts. I have also
caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred
of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that
they too may share in my all-­embracing kindness.

这个很懂中国历史的俄罗斯网友总结,若清朝不取代明朝,而只是留在东北,那肯定会被俄罗斯所征服,而不擅长拓边的明朝肯定不会有任何阻拦。到时候长城以北的所有领地,都将为俄罗斯所有。

8.宋朝和元朝最高行政机构分别是中书门下省和中书省。

As to your entreaty to send one of your
nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of
your country’s trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage
of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained. It is true that
Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at
Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly
confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home.
You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations. Your proposed
Envoy to my Court could not be placed in a position similar to that of
European officials in Peking who are forbidden to leave China, nor could
he, on the other hand, be allowed liberty of movement and the privilege
of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by
his residence in our midst.

只要妥当经营,整合满洲和蒙古军队,到时候入关征服中国的或许将是俄罗斯人。明朝连野蛮的满洲人都打不过,更何况拥有先进装备,战斗力更强大的俄罗斯人?

9.元朝时,统领宗教事务和管辖西藏地区的机构是宣政院。为管理边远地区设置宣慰司。

Moreover, our Celestial dynasty possesses
vast territories, and tribute missions from the dependencies are
provided for by the Department for Tributary States, which ministers to
their wants and exercises strict control over their movements. It would
be quite impossible to leave them to their own devices. Supposing that
your Envoy should come to our Court, his language and national dress
differ from that of our people, and there would be no place in which to
bestow him. It may be suggested that he might imitate the Europeans
permanently resident in Peking and adopt the dress and customs of China,
but, it has never been our dynasty’s wish to force people to do things
unseemly and inconvenient. Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to
reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the
requisite arrangements? Europe consists of many other nations besides
your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how
could we possibly consent? The thing is utterly impracticable. How can
our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette,
established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual
views? If it be said that your object is to exercise control over your
country’s trade, your nationals have had full liberty to trade at Canton
for many a year, and have received the greatest consideration at our
hands. Missions have been sent by Portugal and Italy, preferring similar
requests. The Throne appreciated their sincerity and loaded them with
favours, besides authorising measures to facilitate their trade with
China. You are no doubt aware that, when my Canton merchant, Wu
Chao-ping, who was in debt to foreign ships. I made the Viceroy advance
the monies due, out of the provincial treasury, and ordered him to
punish the culprit severely. Why then should foreign nations advance
this utterly unreasonable request to be represented at my Court? Peking
is nearly two thousand miles from Canton, and at such a distance what
possible control could any British representative exercise?

帖子最后总结:“非常遗憾,更执着于东北蒙古领土的满清取代了明朝,否则俄国历代沙皇”黄色俄罗斯“的梦想必将实现。

10.明太祖(皇帝)时,中国的宰相制度从此被废除。

If you assert that your reverence for Our
Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilisation,
our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that,
even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our
civilisation, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs
to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become,
nothing would be gained thereby.

笔者认为,这名俄罗斯网友的说法未必没有道理。从宣德年间起,明朝就将领土退回长城内。如果明朝不占领满蒙,这些地区肯定会被俄罗斯人占领,到时候如果与俄罗斯人以长城为界,后果不堪设想。返回搜狐,查看更多

11.雍正帝时设置军机处,标志着君主专制制度发展到了顶峰。

Swaying the wide world, I have but one
aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfil the
duties of the State: strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I
have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be
accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted
you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty’s majestic virtue has
penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations
have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador
can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects
strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country’s manufactures.
This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my
Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result
in inconvenience to yourself. I have expounded my wishes in detail and
have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward
journey. It behoves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display
even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual
submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your
country hereafter. Besides making gifts (of which I enclose an
inventory) to each member of your Mission, I confer upon you, O King,
valuable presents in excess of the number usually bestowed on such
occasions, including silks and curios-a list of which is likewise
enclosed. Do you reverently receive them and take note of my tender
goodwill towards you! A special mandate.

责任编辑:

12.古代中国农业生产的主要组织方式是以家庭为单位从事生产劳动。古代中国农业生产的主要特点是形成精耕细作的农业生产体系。

You, O King, from afar have yearned after
the blessings of our civilisation, and in your eagerness to come into
touch with our converting influence have sent an Embassy across the sea
bearing a memorial. I have already taken note of your respectful spirit
of submission, have treated your mission with extreme favour and loaded
it with gifts, besides issuing a mandate to you, O King, and honouring
you with the bestowal of valuable presents. Thus has my indulgence been
manifested.

13.牛耕是我国农业技术史上耕作方式的一次革命。

Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my
Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his
proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be
entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own
country’s barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our
Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years,
although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance
and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need
to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own
produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire
produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to
yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign
hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your
wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our
beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which
completely fail to recognise the Throne’s principle to “treat strangers
from afar with indulgence,” and to exercise a pacifying control over
barbarian tribes, the world over. Moreover, our dynasty, swaying the
myriad races of the globe, extends the same benevolence towards all.
Your England is not the only nation trading at Canton. If other nations,
following your bad example, wrongfully importune my ear with further
impossible requests, how will it be possible for me to treat them with
easy indulgence? Nevertheless, I do not forget the lonely remoteness of
your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea, nor do
I overlook your excusable ignorance of the usages of our Celestial
Empire. I have consequently commanded my Ministers to enlighten your
Ambassador on the subject, and have ordered the departure of the
mission. But I have doubts that, after your Envoy’s return he may fail
to acquaint you with my view in detail or that he may be lacking in
lucidity, so that I shall now proceed . . . to issue my mandate on each
question separately. In this way you will, I trust, comprehend my
meaning….

14.春秋战国和秦汉时期,使用了当时世界上最先进的耕作方式是垄作法。

(3) Your request for a small island near
Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises
from your desire to develop trade. As there are neither foreign hongs
nor interpreters in or near Chusan, where none of your ships have ever
called, such an island would be utterly useless for your purposes. Every
inch of the territory of our Empire is marked on the map and the
strictest vigilance is exercised over it all: even tiny islets and
far­lying sand­banks are clearly defined as part of the provinces to
which they belong. Consider, moreover, that England is not the only
barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire:
supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and
beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading
purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant
infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be
entertained.

15.古代中国手工业的三种主要经营形态分别是官营手工业、民营手工业、家庭营手工业。

(4) The next request, for a small site in
the vicinity of Canton city, where your barbarian merchants may lodge
or, alternatively, that there be no longer any restrictions over their
movements at Aomen, has arisen from the following causes. Hitherto, the
barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to
them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to
encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality…. If
these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur
between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects, and the results would
militate against the benevolent regard that I feel towards you. From
every point of view, therefore, it is best that the regulations now in
force should continue unchanged….

16.明清时期,苏州和杭州是最著名的丝织业中心。

(7) Regarding your nation’s worship of
the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European
nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise
rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code,
which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads
of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines.
Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to
hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the
limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating
their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most
strict, and your Ambassador’s request that barbarians shall be given
full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly
unreasonable.

17.“商人”最早出自于商朝。

It may be, O King, that the above
proposals have been wantonly made by your Ambassador on his own
responsibility, or peradventure you yourself are ignorant of our
dynastic regulations and had no intention of transgressing them when you
expressed these wild ideas and hopes…. If, after the receipt of this
explicit decree, you lightly give ear to the representations of your
subordinates and allow your barbarian merchants to proceed to Chêkiang
and Tientsin, with the object of landing and trading there, the
ordinances of my Celestial Empire are strict in the extreme, and the
local officials, both civil and military, are bound reverently to obey
the law of the land. Should your vessels touch the shore, your merchants
will assuredly never be permitted to land or to reside there, but will
be subject to instant expulsion. In that event your barbarian merchants
will have had a long journey for nothing. Do not say that you were not
warned in due time! Tremblingly obey and show no negligence! A special
mandate!

18.我国最早的银行雏形是柜坊。世界上最早的纸币是北宋发行的“交子”。

From Backhouse, E. and J. O. P. Bland, Annals
and Memoirs of the Court of Peking. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914. pp.
322-­331.

19.元代时,泉州被外国旅行家誉为世界第一大港。清代时实行闭关锁国的政策,只广州一处对外通商。

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20.唐朝时,专管对外贸易的机构称为市舶使。宋代时,在边境设置与少数民族贸易场所称为榷场。中国最早的商标是宋代山东济南刘家功夫针。

责任编辑:

21.“百家争鸣”是中国历史上第一次思想解放运动。

22.孔子整理的“六经”是《诗》《书》《礼》《易》《乐》《春秋》。四书是指《论语》《孟子》《大学》《中庸》。

23.提出“性善论”是孟子;提出“性恶论”是荀子。提出“三纲五常”的思想是董仲舒。提出“心性论”是朱熹。最早提出“天下兴亡,匹夫有责”的思想是顾炎武。

24.后人称孔子为“至圣”、称孟子为“亚圣”。朱熹宋朝理学集大成者。黄宗羲、顾炎武和王夫之是明未清初著名思想家。

25.

①提出“爱人者,人恒爱之”“民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻”是孟子。

②提出“节用而爱人”“为政以德”“已所不欲,勿施于人”是孔子

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